Over the course of the next few months, the content of this site will expand rapidly.
Among the topics we aim to cover, are the governance structures of EU maritime law, inland waterway transport, rules applying to seafarers, trade regulations, security issues, port regulations and competion law.
Emissions by maritime transport contribute to air pollution by SOx and NOx-gases. Both IMO and the European Commission’s DG Environment provide further insights into the problem and the policies developed to address it.
Articles 212 and 222 UNCLOS: The full text of the UNCLOS is available at UN.org.
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships of 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78), Annex VI: Regulation for the prevention of air pollution from ships (1997): More information at IMO.org. The full text is available at UiO.no.
Regulation 14 on sulphur oxides
MARPOL Annex VI ratified by 23 EU-Member States (plus Croatia). Also ratified by Norway.
Commission Regulation (EEC) No 2158/93 of 28.7.1993 concerning the application of amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, and to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ships, 1973, for the purpose of Council Regulation (EEC) No 613/91 OJ L 194, 3.8.1993, p. 5
Information about the EU SOx Emission Control Areas (SECAs) is also available et EUR-LEX.
Directive 1999/32/EC relating to a reduction in the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels and amending Directive 93/12/EEC last amended by Directive 2012/33/EU amending Council Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the sulphur content of marine fuels: The full text of the directive is available at EUR-LEX, as is the consolidated version. The Commission proposal is available at the Commissions web site.
13.12.2010: Commission Decision 2010/769/EU on the establishment of criteria for the use by liquefied natural gas carriers of technological methods as an alternative to using low sulphur marine fuels meeting the requirements of Art. 4b of Directive 1999/32/EC relating to a reduction in the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels as amended by Directive 2005/33/EC on the sulphur content of marine fuels.
Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2015/253 of 16 February 2015 laying down the rules concerning the sampling and reporting under Council Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the sulphur content of marine fuels.
See the written Question P-5967/12 by Knut Fleckenstein: “Liquefied natural gas (LNG) as alternative ship fuel” with answer given by Commissioner Kallas on 12.7.2012.
Case C-526/13, Fast Bunkering Klaipėda UAB v. Valstybinė mokesčių inspekcija prie Lietuvos Respublikos finansų ministerijos. Judgment of 3.9.2015. (VAT on marine fuels)
Case C-537/11, Mattia Manzi, Compagnia Naviera Orchestra v. Capitaneria di Porto di Genova, judgment of 23.1.2014
Case C-505/10: Partrederiet Sea Fighter v. Skatteministeriet, judgment of 10.11.2011
Case C-188/07: Commune de Mesquer v. Total France & Total International Ltd., judgment of 24.6.2008  ECR I‑4501.
Case C-308/06: The Queen on the application of the International Association of Independent Tanker Owners (Intertanko), the International Association of Dry Cargo Shipowners (Intercargo), the Greek Shipping Co-operation Committee, Lloyd’s Register, and International Salvage Union v. Secretary of State for Transport, Judgment of 3.6.2008.  ECR I‑4057.
Case C‑379/92: Criminal proceedings against Matteo Peralta.  ECR I‑3453. Opinion of Advocate-General Lenz of 11.5.1994.
France, Latvia and Romania: reasoned opinion sent (April 2015) Court case against Romania
Commission 19.11.2015: IP/15/6008: “Commission proposes a fine and refers Romania to the Court of Justice of the EU over failure to transpose EU rules on sulphur”.
Commission 22.9.2015: IP/15/5689: “State aid: Commission approves aid for Finland's first LNG terminal”.
Commission 17.12.2012: IP/12/1375: “Environment: New rules on cleaner fuels for shipping will deliver benefits for people’s health” of 17.12.2012
Council 29.10.2012: “Council backs cleaner marine fuel standards”
European Parliament 11.9.2012: “Cleaner shipping fuels to save lives”
Commission 23.5.2012: “Commissioner Potočnik welcomes provisional agreement on sulphur emissions from ships”
Commission 20.3.2012: "Mergers: Commission clears acquisition of Bominflot’s marine fuel business by Marquard & Bahls”
European Parliament 16.2.2012: “Shipping fuels: on course for better health and environment protection”
Commission 19.1.2012: MEMO/12/19 “Commission launches consultation to address greenhouse gas emissions from ships”
Commission 16.9.2011: Commission Staff Paper “Pollutant emission reduction from maritime transport and the Sustainable Waterborne Transport Toolbox”. SEC(2011) 1052 final.
Commission 15.12.2011: IP/11/888 “Commission proposes to cut sulphur dioxide emissions from shipping by 90 %”
Commission 15.7.2011: MEMO/11/512 “Questions and Answers on the Commission proposal on sulphur emissions from maritime transport”
Commission 28.6.2011: IP/11/797 “Reducing greenhouse gases from ships: time is ticking away”
Commission 20.12.2010: IP/10/1747 “Reducing emissions from shipping: Commission’s Joint Research Centre sets out some options”
Council 22.12.2003: Council conclusions — A European Union strategy to reduce atmospheric emissions from seagoing ships. OJ C 8, 13.1.2004, p. 3.
Commission 21.11.2002: IP/02/1719: “Commission launches strategy to reduce air pollution from ships”
Commission 21.11.2002: Communication on a European Union strategy to reduce atmospheric emissions from seagoing ships. COM(2002) 595 final (OJ C 8, 13.1.2004, p. 3)
22.7.2002: Decision No. 1600/2002/EC laying down the Sixth Community Environment Action Programme. OJ L 242, 10.9.2002, p. 1. Article 5(2)(iii)(b) states: “identifying and undertaking specific actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from marine shipping if no such action is agreed within the International Maritime Organisation by 2003”.
Written Question E-014109-15 “Emissions from cruise ships in the Baltic” (answer pending).
Written Question P-008686-14 “Access to funds for the purpose of complying with the EU Sulphur Directive” with answer by Commissioner Vella of 22.12.2014
Written Question P-008499-14 “Enforcement of rules on sulphur dioxide emissions from maritime shipping” with answer by Commissioner Vella of 28.11.2014
Written Question P-008372-14 “Sulphur Directive” with answer by Commissioner Vella of 1.12.2014
Written Question E-005551-14 “Monitoring the consumption of cruise ships” with answer by Commissioner Oettinger of 1.7.2014
Written Question E-8458/2011 by Spyros Danellis: “Shipping efficiency and carbon emissions” with answer given by Commissioner Kallas of 31.10.2012
Written Question P-5967/12 by Knut Fleckenstein: “Liquefied natural gas (LNG) as alternative ship fuel” with answer given by Commissioner Kallas of 12.7.2012
Written Question P-4978/12 by Peter van Dalen: “Quality of fuel oil” with answer given by Commissioner Potočnik of 21.6.2012
Written Question E-3719/10 by Kathleen Van Brempt: “Checks on sea-going ships for the use of low-sulphur fuel” with answer given by Commissioner Potočnik of 15.7.2010
Written Question E-706/12 by Liam Aylward, Brian Crowley and Pat the Cope Gallagher: “The Directive on Marine Sulphur” with answer given by Commissioner Potočnik of 12.3.2012
Written Question E- 9643/11 by Brian Simpson: “Roadmap for the introduction of LNG in the maritime sector” with answer given by Commissioner Kallas of 1.12.2011
Written Question E-8458/11 by Spyros Danellis: “Shipping efficiency and carbon emissions” with answer given by Commissioner Kallas of 31.10.2011
Written Question E-1227/11 by Spyros Danellis: “Developments in the shipping sector and fuel consumption” with answer given by Commissioner Kallas of 11.3.2011
Written Question E-7510/10 by Brian Simpson: “0.1 % sulphur target for 2015” with answer given by Commission Potočnik of 26.10.2010
Written Question P-2997/10 by Olle Schmidt: “Sulphur content of marine fuels” with answer given by Commissioner Potočnik of 7.6.2010
Press clip 5.3.2015: “Sulphur Directive pushes shipping into stormy waters”.
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